Is the publishing of academic articles in Open Access archives optional?

Yes. Aarhus University recommends that researchers ensure that the public can gain free access to publicly funded research.

Is there a national policy on Open Access?

Yes, there is a national strategy for Open Access. You can see it here: ufm.dk/forskning-og-innovation/samspil-mellem-viden-og-innovation/old-open-science/danmarks-nationale-strategi-for-open-access.pdf. (only in Danish)

What Open Access journals are available? 

There are many OA journals. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) provides a comprehensive overview. You can also find information about OA journals here www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/

Does Open Access lead to more citations? 

There is no clear answer to this. The first studies that were made, showed a clear trend towards an increase in the number of citations, while many of the more recent studies, in which the methods of analysis have become more stringent, seem more cautious. It is also difficult to make valid assessments of the impact of Open Access publishing; one of the many great challenges is how we should define and delineate a reliable control group.

Open Access means that the public gain access to research publications faster and that these publications thus gain greater visibility (more visitors and more downloads). This audience could be employees of private firms, researchers from developing countries, teachers, politicians, journalists and private individuals.

How do I register and archive publications in PURE? 

PURE is a register of research-related publications and activities at Aarhus University and a tool for recording such activity. At the point of registration in PURE you can also upload a full-text file which will then be archived in PURE. This means that your research publications can immediately be made visible on the web and freely read without the need to subscribe to journals, etc. You do, however, still have the possibility in PURE to restrict access to one or more of your publications. For example, some publishers demand an embargo period before free access can be granted. We have made user guides on how to register your publications and how to register Open Access in PURE.

Which copyright rules are relevant with regard to the use of Open Access material? 

Open Access (OA) material is typically protected by copyright. The authors of academic publications that are placed in OA archives ('Repositories') must consent to their work being placed there, and the relevant copyright rules remain the same. The publications are freely available to read and cite, and may also be downloaded. The author retains the right to be correctly republished, correctly cited and properly recognized as the author of the publication. In short, all legitimate academic use is permitted while plagiarism, and false reuse and citations are of course not allowed.

What is Creative Commons? 

As the author of an academic publication one could be interested in the ability of others to use the material in a way that copyright would otherwise prohibit. This may, for example, be in the form of a reworking or further development. You can utilise Creative Commons to customize your copyrights and grant users of your material a number of rights without having to enter into individual agreements.

Creative Commons was founded in 2001. It is a non-profit organization that offers artists, researchers and others simple tools for sharing work with others.

The licenses consist of 4 types of rights (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_Commons_license) which combine to make 6 separate licenses in total. Once you have shared a work a license cannot be withdrawn. The 6 licenses are described: 


You can read more here: creativecommons.dk (in danish) and here: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_Commons_license


Will my academic publications be searchable via search engines? 

Yes, depending on their circumstances with respect to Google Scholar, Scopus, subject-based databases and suchlike. For instance, material uploaded to PURE is made available in Forskningsdatabasen. (http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search,$Border.$DirectLink.direct)

What is ’the green model’? 

The author can enter a publication into an institutional or subject-specific archive with Open Access (OA). This occurs, in principle, parallel with its publication elsewhere. Depending on copyright, the version that is placed in the OA archive could be a preprint, a postprint or a PDF version of the published publication.

Aarhus University has decided that all academic publications produced by the university where possible should be available to the public via PURE. This means that they should be registered and archived in PURE and possibly in other relevant archives.

What is ’the golden model’?

Golden Open Access means, that you have to pay a one-time fee (APC) to the publisher to make an article publicly available. At AU it is possible to use golden Open Access if it can be financed by your institute or by external funding from Danish funds or Horizon 2020

What is postprint?

An article or other publication that is accepted for publication; i.e. after peer review and the author's inclusion of any corrections and additions. It can also be called ‘accepted version ', ' accepted draft 'or similar.  Postprint is thus, content-wise, substantively similar to the finished publication, but will often differ from it in typography and layout.

What is preprint?

An article or other publication that has not yet been accepted for publication or undergone peer review. Preprint is the version that represents the main opportunity for researchers to get input with regard to corrections and additions, before the peer-review process. The preprint stage can also be called ’submitted version’, ’pre-refereed draft’ or similar. This definition is also used by SherpaRomeo: www.sherpa.ac.uk/guidance/submission.html. However, some publishers call the finished, i.e. peer-reviewed, version preprint; that is to say before they apply the publisher's layout and so on.

What is an 'Institutional Repository'?

A digital archive of publications from a specific institution. Free access is granted to the archive for people connected with the institution and possibly others. At AU we have PURE as institutional repository.

Can I place PDF copies of my old printed articles in an Open-Access archive?

It is possible that you may have transferred your copyright, in whole or in part, to the journal or publisher when you published the article. So without permission from them you cannot simply place an article in an Open Access archive. You can check the journal on the list to see what is permitted (www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/). If the journal is not included on the list you can also go directly to the journal or publisher.

I have published an article with Open Access. Can i simply archive it in PURE or in an Open Access archive?

Yes, as the author of an Open Access article, where it is you who owns the copyright, you may place it in the archive - and it is expected that you will. You need to check which version you should use before uploading. 

I have published an article with Open Access. MUST I put it on PURE?

Yes, it is expected that you put it in PURE so that it can be downloaded from there.

Should I put my PhD thesis on PURE?

Yes, Aarhus University recommends OA archiving of PhD theses, which thus become accessible to a much larger audience.

My PhD thesis contains articles.

If you own the copyright to the articles yourself, then there is of course no problem. So, you simply put your PhD thesis including all articles into the OA archive. However, for articles where you have assigned the rights to a publisher / journal, whether fully or partially, you must investigate what you are permitted to do. It may be that you have permission to put the postprint or preprint versions into the archive, and these versions can then be included with the PhD thesis and added to the OA archive. You can check most of the international journals on www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/.

Finally, you can choose to replace the included articles with references.

Should I put working papers and conference papers in PURE?

Open Access at Aarhus University is first and foremost about providing access to research publications. It all depends, therefore, on the type of working paper and conference paper, and not least on whether it is appropriate with respect to the particular subject-area and its established traditions.

Should I put my newspaper article in PURE?

No, you don’t need to do this. Open Access at Aarhus University is primarily about providing access to academic publications. However, you should remember to register your news article in PURE.

Open Access - What do Danish journals allow?

In Denmark, and indeed throughout Scandinavia, there is a movement towards public sector support for Danish/Nordic journals together with a requirement that they be published as Open Access (OA) with free and full access. You should contact the journal's editors and inquire about its OA policy.

You can find the OA policies for a number of Danish journals registered in Sherpa-Romeo: http://sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/index.php.

A study conducted for the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation in 2012 looked at research dissemination in Danish journals. The report Research dissemination in Danish Journals outlines the market for Danish language, academic publishing channels, including their publishing methods, income sources, as well as their ability to migrate to Open Access publishing. Read more on the conclusions of the report: https://ufm.dk/en/research-and-innovation/cooperation-between-research-and-innovation/open-science/open-access-to-research-publications/nifurapport2012-23.pdf

What about books and Open Access?

From the outset Open Access (OA) has concentrated on academic journal articles and journals, and the entire OA movement has its origins in the fields of health and the natural sciences. The question of OA and books has only recently come to the fore, and the situation is therefore less clear. OAPEN is an EU-funded project involving university publishers from six European countries. The project aims to continue the OA idea for publishing monographs within the humanities and the social sciences. You can see an overview of a number of books published via OA at the Directory of Open Access Books here: doabooks.org

The publication of academic monographs in Denmark is further complicated today by lack of publishing support from the research councils. Since the area is in its infancy, in individual cases it is necessary to negotiate with the publishers involved.

My journal is not on the "www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/" list. What do I do?

If your journal is not listed, you can go to the journal's website, or contact the journal directly to hear what their policy is regarding archiving in an Open Access archive. You can also contact your local AU library or write to openaccess@kb.dk.

I have put my article on PURE as Open Access without being entitled to do so. What happens now?

If you find that you have accidentally placed an item in the Open Access (OA) archive without permission, you can simply remove the article again. If Aarhus University becomes aware that an author has broken any copyright rules; rules, for example, set by a publisher or journal, Aarhus University will ensure that the article in question be immediately removed from the OA archive. If Aarhus University is contacted by a publisher or the like, with copyright infringement claims, access to that article will be suspended while investigating the matter.

Declarations behind Open Access?

Open Access was defined and outlined between 2001 and 2003. The basic definitions can be found in the Berlin Declaration, the Budapest Open Access Initiative and the "Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing". You can find the individual texts here:

Berlin Declaration:

Also called “Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003)”. This declaration formulated the core definitions of Open Access. Included in the Budapest-Bethesda-Berlin (or BBB) definition of Open Access.


Budapest Open Access Initiative:

An initiative that grew out of a meeting in Budapest organized by the Open Society Institute (OSI), 1st-2nd December, 2001. The meeting was intended to expedite the free availability of research articles in all academic areas on the Internet. Included in the Budapest-Bethesda-Berlin (or BBB) definition of Open Access


Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing:

A set of principles intended to promote discussion, particularly within the biomedical research community on how Open Access to the primary academic literature sources can be promoted. Included in the Budapest-Bethesda-Berlin (or BBB) definition of Open Access.


Are there any requirements from foundations and funders about Open Access? 

Yes, a number of Danish foundations and grants have requirements with respect to Open Access: 

This means that peer-reviewed articles, written in connection with a subsidized project, must be published in a relevant archive in parallel with its being published with Open Access.

The EU has the same requirements, cf. the new framework program Horizon2020, where Open Access is mandatory for academic articles. In general, an increasing number of international funds have requirements with regards to Open Access.

How to handle embargo periods?

Green Open Access policies usually assume that the grant provider allows an embargo period from the publication date in order to protect traditional publishing methods. In cases where there are inconsistencies between the requirements with respect to Open Access from the grant provider and the rights that the publisher grants to the author, it is then the author's responsibility to obtain the necessary rights. For example, there may be differences with regard to the length of the embargo period, which could be handled by entering into a supplementary agreement or by transferring to the publisher the necessary rights to publish the article.

We recommend that you either use a supplementary agreement or a model agreement to ensure your rights to your own work. You can use a model agreement from The Committee for the Protection of Scientific Work (UVBA): http://ubva.dk/vejledende-aftaler/ (in Danish). At the Danish National Research Foundation's website you can also find a similar contract which you can use to ensure Open Access to your articles with respect to individual publishers: dg.dk/om-fonden/open-access-politik/.

If you have uploaded your article in PURE, you can specify an embargo period before others can access it.

Can I archive to other Open Access archives?

Yes, you can, if your contract with the publisher allows it. This could be both an institutional archive or a subject-based archive. You can see a list here: http://www.opendoar.org/